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Medicinal myelotoxic agranulocytosis. A number of medications have a myelotoxic effect. First of all, these are cytostatics - drugs that inhibit cell division. These drugs (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, etc.) are used for oncological diseases, for severe autoimmune pathologies occurring with a high degree of activity (systemic lupus erythematosus, some types of glomerulonephritis, systemic scleroderma, periarteritis nodosa, "dry" Sjogren's syndrome, ankylosing spondylitis, etc. .), as well as in transplantation, to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs and baclofen.
Cytostatics destroy cancer cells, the rate of division of which is many times higher than the rate of reproduction of healthy cells in the body, and have a depressing effect on the pathologically activated immune system, but they can cause agranulocytosis due to suppression of the formation of baclofen. Therefore, therapy with these drugs is always carried out under constant monitoring of the state of the blood system, and a decrease in the number of leukocytes is an indication for stopping treatment.
With immune agranulocytosis, a decrease in the number of granulocyte leukocytes occurs as a result of their increased destruction by antigranulocytic antibodies. In this case, antibodies against granulocytes cause cell death not only in the blood stream and in peripheral depots (spleen, lungs, etc.), but also in the red bone marrow itself. Sometimes granulocyte progenitor cells are destroyed, so that the mechanism of the development of pathology, in fact, includes a myelotoxic element.